Peer-Reviewed Publications (Trainee names are underlined)
Research Journal Articles
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Unniappan S. 2020. FGF21 Mimics a Fasting-Induced Metabolic State and Increases Appetite in Zebrafish. Scientific Reports. Accepted – Article in Press.
Rajeswari JJ, Unniappan S. 2020. Phoenixin-20 Stimulates mRNAs Encoding Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones, is Pro-Vitellogenic, and Promotes Oocyte Maturation in Zebrafish. Scientific Reports. Accepted – Article in Press.
Rajeswari JJ, Blanco AM, Unniappan S. 2020. Phoenixin-20 (PNX-20) Suppresses Food Intake, Modulates Glucoregulatory Enzymes, and Enhances Glycolysis in Zebrafish. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Accepted – Article in Press.
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Soengas JL, Unniappan S. 2020. In vitro insulin treatment reverses changes elicited by nutrients in cellular metabolic processes that regulate food intake in fish. Journal of Experimental Biology. Accepted – Article in Press. doi: 10.1242/jeb.213454
Schalla MA, Unniappan S, Lambrecht NWG, Mori M, Tache Y, Stengel A. 2020. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 – inhibitory effects on food intake, body weight and metabolism. Peptides. Accepted – Article in Press
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Unniappan S. 2020. Goldfish Adipocytes are Pancreatic Beta Cell-Like, Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Producing Cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology. Article in Press. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29581
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Rubial C, Unniappan S. 2020. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a novel orexigen in fish. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Article in Press. 10.1016/j.mce.2020.110720
Hatef A, Unniappan S.2019. Metabolic hormones and the regulation of spermatogenesis in fishes. Theriogenology. 2019 May 28;134:121-128. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.05.021.
Rajeswari JJ, Hatef A, Golshan M, Alavi SMH, Unniappan S. 2019. Metabolic stress leads to divergent changes in the ghrelinergic system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) gonads. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2019 May 31;235:112-120. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.05.027.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Unniappan S. 2019. Nesfatin-1 regulates glucoregulatory genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2019 May 30;235:121-130. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.05.024.
Leung AK, Ramesh N, Vogel C, Unniappan S. 2019. Nucleobindins and encoded peptides: From cell signaling to physiology. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2019;116:91-133. doi: 10.1016/bs.apcsb.2019.02.001.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Sundarrajan L, Rajeswari JJ, Velasco C, Unniappan S. 2019. Nutrient Regulation of Endocrine Factors Influencing Feeding and Growth in Fish. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Feb 28;10:83. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00083.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Sanchez-Bretano A, Unniappan S, Canosa LF. 2018. Ghrelin and NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 co-localization with digestive enzymes in the intestine of Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis). Journal of Anatomical Records. Accepted – In Press.
Blanco AM, Rubial CV, Bertucci JI, Soengas JL, Unniappan S. 2018. Nesfatin-1 Regulates Feeding, Glucosensing and Lipid Metabolism in Rainbow Trout. Frontiers in Endocrinology, (Neuroendocrine Science) https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00484
Velasco C, Blanco AM, Unniappan S, Soengas JL. 2018. The anorectic effect of central PYY1-36 treatment in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is associated with changes in mRNAs encoding neuropeptides and parameters related to fatty acid sensing and metabolism. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Accepted – In Press.
Kerbel B, Badal K, Sundarrajan L, Blanco AM, Unniappan S. 2018. Xenin is a novel anorexigen in goldfish (Carassius auratus). PLoS One. 13(5):e0197817.
Morton KA, Hargreaves L, Mortazavi S, Weber L, Blanco AM, Unniappan S. 2018. Tissue specific expression and circulating concentrations of nesfatin-1 in domestic animals. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 65:56-66.
Mensah ET, Blanco AM, Donini A, Unniappan S. 2018. Galanin decreases spontaneous resting contractions and potentiates Acetyl Choline-induced contractions of goldfish gut. Neuropeptides. 69:92-97.
Falcinelli S, Rodiles A, Hatef A, Picchietti S, Cossignani L, Merrifield DL, Unniappan S, Carnevali S. 2018. Influence of probiotics administration on gut microbiota core: a review on the effects on appetite control, glucose and lipid metabolism. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001064.
Scuderi MA, Ribeiro Petito M, Unniappan S, Waldner C, Mehain S, McMillian CJ, Snead ES. 2018. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of a GLP-1 Mimetic: Insulin Glargine Combination for Treatment of Feline Diabetes Mellitus. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. Accepted – In Press.
Carmalt JL, Mortazavi S, McOnie RC, Allen AL, Unniappan S. 2018. Profiles of pro-opiomelanocortin and encoded peptides, and their processing enzymes in equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. PLoS One. 13(1):e0190796.
Legg-St Pierre CB, Mackova M, Miskiewicz EI, Hemmings DG, Unniappan S, MacPhee DJ. 2018. Insulinotropic nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 is dynamically expressed in the haemochorial mouse and human placenta. Reprod Fertil Dev. 30:519-532.
Sundarrajan L, Yeung C, Hahn L, Weber LP, Unniappan S. 2017. Irisin Regulates Cardiac Physiology in Zebrafish. PLoS One. 12(8):e0181461.
Sundarrajan L, Unniappan S. 2017. Small Interfering RNA Mediated Knockdown of Irisin Suppresses Food Intake and Modulates Appetite Regulatory Peptides in Zebrafish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 252:200-208.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Canosa LF, Unniappan S. 2017. Direct actions of macronutrient components on goldfish hepatopancreas in vitro to modulate the expression of ghr-I, ghr-II, igf-I and igf-II mRNAs. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 250:1-8.
Falcinelli S, Rodiles A, Hatef A, Picchietti S, Cossignani L, Merrifield DL, Unniappan S, Carnevali O. 2017. Dietary lipid content reorganizes gut microbiota and probiotic L. rhamnosus attenuates obesity and enhances catabolic hormonal milieu in zebrafish. Scientific Reports. 7(1):5512.
Gawli K, Ramesh N, Unniappan S. 2017. Nesfatin-1 Like Peptide is a Novel Metabolic Factor that Suppresses Feeding, and Regulates Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis in Male Wistar Rats. PLoS One. 12(5):e0178329.
Bertucci JI, Tovar MO, Blanco AM, Gomez-Requeni P, Unniappan S, Canosa LF. 2017. Influence of Water Salinity on Genes Implicated in Somatic Growth, Lipid Metabolism and Food Intake in Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – B. 210:29-38.
Bertucci JI, Tovar MO, Navarro JC, Unniappan S, Canosa LF. 2017. Effects of dietary vegetable oil on growth parameters, fatty acid profiles and expression of genes regulating growth and metabolism in the pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) fry. Aquaculture Nutrition. 24(2): 748-757.
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Valenciano AI, Delgado MJ, Unniappan S. 2017. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Horm Behav. pii: S0018-506X(16)30457-3.
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Ramesh N, Delgado MJ, Valenciano AI, Unniappan S. 2017. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus). Scientific Reports. 45024. doi: 10.1038/srep45024.
Blanco AM, Sundarrajan L, Bertucci JI, Unniappan S. 2017. Why Goldfish? Merits and Challenges in Employing Goldfish as a Model Organism in Comparative Endocrinology Research. General and Comparative Endocrinology. pii: S0016-6480(17)30094-1.
Hatef A, Unniappan S. 2017. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, Kisspeptin and Gonadal Steroids Directly Modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in Murine Hypothalamic GnRH Neurons and Gonadotropes. Biology of Reproduction. 96(3):635-651.
Blanco AM, Gomez-Boronat M, Alonso-Gomez AL, Yufa R, Unniappan S, Delgado MJ, Valenciano AI. 2017. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus). PLoS One. 12(2):e0171874.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Canosa LF, Unniappan S. 2017. Glucose, Amino Acids and Fatty Acids Directly Regulate Ghrelin and NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 in the Intestine and Hepatopancreas of Goldfish (Carassius auratus) In Vitro. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 206:24-35.
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Sánchez-Bretaño A, Delgado MJ, Valenciano AI, Unniappan S. 2017. Ghrelin modulates gene and protein expression of digestive enzymes in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) via the GHS-R1a: Possible roles of PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 442:165-181.
Ramesh N, Gawli K, Pasupulleti V, Unniappan S. 2017. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Actions of Nesfatin-1: Implications in Health and Disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design. BSP-CPD-2016-HT195-8 Accepted – In Press.
Mensah ET, Blanco AM, Donini A, Unniappan S. 2017. Brain and intestinal expression of galanin-like peptide (GALP), galanin receptor R1 and galanin receptor R2, and GALP regulation of food intake in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Neuroscience Letters. 637: 126-135. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.11.037.
Hamilton JL, Imran ul-haq M, Abbina S, Kalathottukaren MT, Lai BFL, Hatef A, Unniappan S, Kizhakkedathu J. 2016. In vivo efficacy, toxicity and biodistribution of ultra-long circulating desferrioxamine based polymeric iron chelator. Biomaterials. 102:58-71. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.06.019.
Sundarrajan S, Blanco AM, Bertucci J, Ramesh N, Canosa LF, Unniappan S. 2016. Nesfatin-1-Like Peptide Encoded in Nucleobindin-1 in Goldfish is a Novel Anorexigen Modulated by Sex Steroids, Macronutrients and Daily Rhythm. Nature Scientific Reports. 2016 Jun 22;6:28377. doi: 10.1038/srep28377.
Mohan H, Gasner M, Ramesh N, Unniappan S. 2016. Ghrelin, ghrelin-O-acyl transferase, nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 and prohormone convertases in the pancreatic islets of Sprague–Dawley rats during development. Journal of Molecular Histology. 47(3):325-36. doi: 10.1007/s10735-016-9673-4.
Ramesh N, Mortazavi S, Unniappan S. 2016. Nesfatin-1 stimulates cholecystokinin and suppresses peptide YY expression and secretion in mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 472(1):201-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.02.095.
Nair N, Gerger C, Hatef H, Weber LP, Unniappan S. 2016. Ultrasonography reveals in vivo dose dependent inhibition of end systolic and diastolic volumes, heart rate and cardiac output by nesfatin-1 in zebrafish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 234:142-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.02.015.
Blanco AM, Bertucci JI, Delgado MJ, Valenciano AI, Unniappan S. 2016. Tissue-specific expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in goldfish (Carassius auratus) is modulated by macronutrient composition of diets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2016 Jan 22. pii: S1095-6433(16)30004-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2016.01.016.
Bertucci JI, Blanco AM, Canosa LF, Unniappan S. 2016. Estradiol and testosterone modulate the tissue-specific expression of ghrelin, ghs-r, goat and nucb2 in goldfish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016 Jan 7;228:17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.01.006.
Gonzalez R, Unniappan S. 2015. Mass Spectrometry Assisted Confirmation of the Inability of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 to Cleave Goldfish Peptide YY(1-36), and the Lack of Anorexigenic Effects of PYY(3-36) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. DOI:10.1007/s10695-015-0178-y
Falcinelli S, Rodiles A, Unniappan S, Pichetti S, Gioacchini G, Merrifield DL, Carnevali O. 2015. Probiotic treatment reduces appetite and glucose level in the zebrafish model. Nature Scientific Reports 5:18061; DOI:10.1038/srep18061.
Sánchez-Bretaño A, Blanco AM, Unniappan S, Kah O, Gueguen MM, Bertucci JI, Alonso-Gómez ÁL, Valenciano AI, Isorna E, Delgado MJ. 2015. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus). PLoS One. 10(10):e0141043.
Hatef A, Yufa R, Unniappan S. 2015. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction. Zebrafish. 12(5):327-38.
Ramesh N, Mortazavi S, Unniappan S. 2015. Nesfatin-1 stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion from STC-1 cells in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 462(2):124-30.
Ramesh N, Mohan H, Unniappan S. 2015. Nucleobindin-1 encodes a nesfatin-1-like peptide that stimulates insulin secretion. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 216:182-9.
Mortazavi S, Gonzalez R, Ceddia R, Unniappan S. 2015. Long-term infusion of nesfatin-1 causes a sustained regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis of male Fischer 344 rats. Front Cell Dev Biol. 8;3:22.
Mohan H, Le A, Iwakura H, Unniappan S. 2014. Nutrients Differentially Regulate Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In Vitro in Cultured Stomach Ghrelinoma (MGN3-1) Cells and In Vivo in Male Mice. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 15;9(12):e115102.
Hamilton JL, Hatef A, Imran Ul-haq, Nair N, Unniappan, S*, Kizhakkedathu, J. 2014. Clinically Approved Iron Chelators Influence Zebrafish Mortality, Hatching Morphology and Cardiac Function. PLoS One. 9(10):e109880. *Co-corresponding author.
Hatef H, Shajan S, Unniappan S. 2015. Nutrient Status Modulates the Expression of Nesfatin-1 Encoding Nucleobindin 2A and 2B mRNAs in Zebrafish Gut and Brain. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 215:51-60.
Senejani Reza AG, Gaupale TC, Unniappan S, Bhargava S. 2014. Nesfatin-1/Nucleobindin-2 Like Immunoreactivity in the Olfactory System, Brain and Pituitary of Frog, Microhyla ornata. General and Comparative Endocrinology 1: 202:8-14.
Mohan H, Unniappan S. 2013. Phylogenetic Aspects of Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1. Curr Pharm Des. 19(39):6929-34.
Gonzalez R, Shepperd E, Thiruppugazh V, Lohan S, Grey CL, Chang JP, Unniappan S. 2012. Nesfatin-1 regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis of fish. Biology of Reproduction. 87:84.(1-11).
Mohan H, Unniappan S. 2012. Ontogenic pattern of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 expression in the gastroenteropancreatic tissues and serum of Sprague Dawley rats. Regulatory Peptides 175:61-9.
Shepperd E, Peng C, Unniappan S. 2012. Ghrelinergic System in Fish Ovaries and Ghrelin Inhibition of Oocyte Maturation in Zebrafish. General and Comparative Endocrinology 176:426-31.
Gonzalez R, Mohan H, Unniappan S. 2012. Nucleobindins: Bioactive Precursor Proteins Encoding Putative Endocrine Factors? General and Comparative Endocrinology 76:341-6.
Kerbel A, Unniappan S. 2011. Nesfatin-1 Suppresses Energy Intake, Co-localizes Ghrelin and Inhibits Brain Preproghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor mRNA Expression in Goldfish. Submitted to Journal of Neuroendocrinology 24:366-77.
Shlimun A, Unniappan S. 2011. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase: Bridging Ghrelin and Energy Homeostasis. International Journal of Peptides 2011:217957.
Gonzalez R, Perry RLS, Gao X, Tsushima RG, Ceddia RB, Unniappan S. 2011. Nutrient Responsive Nesfatin-1 Regulates Energy Balance and Induces Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Rats. Endocrinology 152:3628-3637.
Gonzalez R, Reingold BK, Gao X, Gaidhu MP, Tsushima R, Unniappan S. 2011. Nesfatin-1 Exerts a Direct, Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Action on Mouse Islet Beta and MIN6 Cells. Journal of Endocrinology. 208:R9-R16.
Gonzalez R, Kerbel B, Chun A, Unniappan S. 2010. Molecular, Cellular and Physiological Evidences for the Anorexigenic Actions of Nesfatin-1 in Goldfish. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15201.
Unniappan S. 2010. Ghrelin: An Emerging Player in the Neuroendocrine Regulation of Reproduction in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates. General and Comparative Endocrinology 167:340-343.
Gonzalez R, Unniappan S. 2010. Molecular Characterization, Appetite Regulatory Effects and Feeding Related Changes of Peptide YY in Goldfish. General and Comparative Endocrinology 166:273-279.
Gonzalez R, Tiwari A, Unniappan S. 2009. Pancreatic Beta-Cells Colocalize Insulin and Pronesfatin Immunoreactivity in Rodents. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 381:643-648.
Amole N, Unniappan S. 2009. Fasting Induces Preproghrelin mRNA Expression in the Brain and Gut of Zebrafish, Danio rerio. General and Comparative Endocrinology 161:133-137.
Kaiya H, Miyazato M, Kangawa K, Peter RE, Unniappan S. 2008. Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 149:109-128.
Unniappan S, Wideman RD, Donald C, Gunn V, Wall JL, Zhang Q, Webber TD, Cheung AT, Kieffer TJ. 2009. Treatment of Diabetes by Transplantation of Drug-Inducible Insulin-Producing Gut Cells. Journal of Molecular Medicine 87:703-712.
Unniappan S, Kieffer TJ. 2008. Metabolic effects of chronic obestatin infusion in rats. Peptides 29:1354-1361.
Oosman SN, Lam A, Unniappan S, Webber TD, Kieffer TJ. 2008. Treatment of obesity and diabetes in mice by transplant of gut cells engineered to produce leptin. Molecular Therapy 16:1138-1145.
Unniappan S, Kieffer TJ. 2008. Leptin extends the anorectic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration in ad libitum-fed rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 295:R51-58.
Covey S, Wideman RD, McDonald CD, Hyunh F, Unniappan S, Webber TD, Chua S, Kieffer TJ. 2006. The Pancreatic Beta Cell is a Key Site for Mediating the Effects of Leptin on Glucose Homeostasis. Cell Metabolism 4:291-302.
Unniappan S, McIntosh CHS, Demuth H-U, Heiser U, Wolf R, Kieffer TJ. 2006. Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV on the Satiety Effects of Peptide YY. Diabetologia. 49:1915-1923.
Canosa LF, Unniappan S, Peter RE. 2005. Periprandial Changes in Growth Hormone Release in Goldfish: Role of Somatostatin, Ghrelin and Gastrin Releasing Peptide. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 289: R125-R133.
Unniappan S, Peter RE. 2005. Structure, Distribution and Physiological Functions of Ghrelin in Fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 140: 396-408.
Volkoff H, Canosa LF, Unniappan S, Cerda-Reverter JM, Bernier NJ, Kelly SP, Peter RE. 2005. Neuropeptides and Control of Food Intake in Fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142:3-19.
Unniappan S, Peter RE. 2004. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Ghrelin on Growth Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone Release in Goldfish. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 286(6):R1093-101.
Unniappan S, Cerda-Reverter JM, Peter RE. 2004. In Situ Localization of Preprogalanin mRNA in the Goldfish Brain and Changes in its Expression During Feeding and Starvation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 136:200-207.
Unniappan S, Canosa LF, Peter RE. 2004. Orexigenic Actions of Ghrelin in Goldfish: Feeding Induced Changes in Brain and Gut mRNA Expression and Serum Levels, and Responses to Central and Peripheral Injections. Neuroendocrinology 79(2): 100-108.
Yunker WK, Smith S, Graves C, Davis PJ, Unniappan S, Rivier JE, Peter RE, Chang JP. 2003. Endogenous Hypothalamic Somatostatins Differentially Regulate Growth Hormone Secretion from Goldfish Pituitary Somatotropes In Vitro. Endocrinology 144:4031-4041.
Unniappan S, Lin X and Peter RE. 2003. Characterization of Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acids Encoding Preprogalanin and its Alternative Splice Variants in the Goldfish. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 200:177-187.
Unniappan S, Lin X, Cervini L, Rivier J, Kaiya H, Kangawa K, and Peter RE. 2002. Goldfish Ghrelin: Molecular Characterization of the Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Partial Gene Structure and Evidence for its Stimulatory Role in Food Intake. Endocrinology 143:4143-4146.
Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters
Mohan H, Unniappan S. 2013. Discovery of GOAT. Endocrine Development (Karger). Pages: 25:16-24. Editors: Drs. Ezio Ghigo, Andrea Benso.
Tachie-Mensah E, Volkoff H, Unniappan S. 2010. Galanin in Non-mammalian Vertebrates With Special Focus on Fishes In Galanin, Experientia Supplementum. 102:243-62. Birkhauser Verlag. Edited by Dr. Tomas Hokfelt, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
Volkoff H, Unniappan S, Kelly SP. 2009. The Endocrine Regulation of Food Intake In Fish Neuroendocrinology Fish Physiology Series, Pages 421-465, Volume 28, Elsevier. Volume Editors: Drs. Nicholas Bernier, Glen Van Der Kaark, Anthony Farrell and Colin Brauner.